• Anita Hollerer-Squire

Worst pesticides used on food in NZ

Updated: Jun 14

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For an update on pesticide testing NZ - check out my new blog


The rate of some cancers has doubled and even quadrupled in the world over the past 100-150 years, according to researchers from the University of Adelaide Medical School.


What has changed in the world over the last 4 generations? Why do we have more cancers today than we did 100 years ago? You should think, cancer rates would have gone down with all the new technology and medications available to us today.


However, 90 - 95 % of all cancers are due to what we eat and other lifestyle factors such as stress, smoking, alcohol, lack of exercise, sun exposure and environmental pollution.


One contributing factor stands out very clearly to me. It is the use of all the pesticides we have nowadays. Everything is sprayed with toxic chemicals. To increase the yield of crops, farmers spray chemicals to kill pests, diseases and weeds. Since 1950, the increase of pesticide use is estimated to be 2.5 million tons annually worldwide. (1)


You have to ask the question - if those chemicals kill bugs and weeds - what effect do they have on us?


This started me off on a research quest - working my way through the Ministry of Primary Industries Food Notice on maximum residue levels for agricultural compounds (from February 2018) to their database on allowed pesticides for individual crops and comparing this to the European standards. Let me tell you - it's not an easy task. It took me ages to find all the information, which is cleverly hidden away and written in confusing and long-drawn out documents to make sure most people give up looking for the answers.


What I found only strengthened my belief to avoid eating anything conventionally grown. I'd rather grow my own veggies and spend a bit more on buying organic food and have the peace of mind of knowing I'm not putting myself and my family at risk of getting sick because of all the chemicals in our food.


What concerns me though, is that organic food is much more expensive than conventional grown food and therefore unattainable for many of us - especially low-income families in NZ.


Here are some examples of the worst chemicals used in NZ:


Methyl Bromide


In New Zealand we are still using chemicals that are banned in Europe, because of their high toxicity, cancer causing properties and environmental risks.


One of those banned chemicals in Europe is Methyl Bromide. This chemical is destroying the stratospheric ozone layer, which shields the earth from ultraviolet radiation. You should think this would be a priority for New Zealand, as we are most affected by the ozone layer hole.


Methyl Bromide is toxic to the central and peripheral nervous system. It is also a developmental and reproductive toxin and exposure is known to cause skin, kidney, respiratory, liver and neurological damage resulting in severe or permanent health effects.


Under the Montreal Protocol all developed countries (including NZ) were required to phase out the use of Methyl Bromide by 1 January 2005. In NZ we still use Methyl Bromide - with an annual consumption of about 355 tonnes - in fact, we have increased our use by more than 4 times over the last 16 years.(2) Even so there are exemptions for the phase-out of Methyl Bromide - like quarantine and pre-shipment - it is high time for NZ to find alternatives.



Methyl Bromide is used to fumigate containers arriving and departing NZ and to prevent the introduction, establishment or spread of quarantine pests. It may also be used to fumigate imported commodities like rice, spices, as well as fruit and vegetables.


Some examples of methyl bromide use on imported fruit and vegetables:


Country Fruit/vegetables

Australia: Capsicum, zucchini, strawberries and watermelons

USA: Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plums, grapes, cherries and strawberries

China: Garlic

Mexico: Grapes

Tonga: Watermelons


For the above fruit & vegetables the allowed residue level of Methyl Bromide is 50 mg/kg.


Nuts and spices can have the following allowed residue levels:


Nuts 200 mg/kg

Spices 400 mg/kg


Yam, nothing beats a nice bath with chemicals on our food!


Chemicals on our lettuce


Let's take a look at a staple in every household - the humble lettuce.


Eating lettuce is meant to be good for our health - or is it?


Not all of the following pesticides will be sprayed on every lettuce, but some of them will be.



Here is a list of pesticides that are allowed to be used on lettuce in NZ:


Pesticide: MRL (mg/kg) Facts/Comments


Acephate 2.00 Insecticide

Banned in Europe since 2003

Can cause cancer

Suspected endocrine disruptor*

Potential ground water contaminant

Toxic


Carbendazim 2.00 Fungicide

Banned in Europe in 2011

Dangerous chemical toxin

Causes malformations in the foetus

Capable of disrupting chromosome

Can cause infertility

Can cause cancer

Dangerous for water organisms

DuPont (the producer) was misleading

regulators to get approval in the EU


Chlorothalonil 10.00 Fungicide

Also known as “Bravo”

Can increase the risk of blood disorder

Can cause cancer


Imidacloprid 1.00 Insecticide

Classified as moderately toxic

Potential ground water contaminant


Indoxacarb 3.00 Insecticide

A review in the EFSA Journal for the EU

in 2017 has identified an acute intake

concern and the EU is reviewing the

usage.


Methamidophos 0.20 Insecticide

Banned in Europe since 2008 due to

acute consumer risk.

Very toxic for humans

Dangerous for the environment

Very toxic for aquatic organisms


Pendimethalin 0.05 Herbicide

Possible human carcinogen

Slightly toxic


Pymetrozine 3.00 Insecticide

EPA has classified it as likely human

carcinogen.

Slightly toxic

Potential ground water contaminant


Sulfoxaflor 1.00 lettuce head Insecticide

5.00 lettuce leaves Harmful to bees

May be toxic to humans – affects

nervous system and liver

Sulfoxaflor is a product of the

Dow Chemical Company


Tiophanate-Methyl /

Carbendazim 2.00 Fungicide

Banned in Europe in 2011

Very toxic

Endocrine disruptor*


MRL = maximum residue limits

EFSA = European Food Safety Authority

EPA = Environmental Protection Authority NZ


*Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that may interfere with the body's endocrine system (hormones) and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, and immune effects in humans.


Glyphosate


Glyphosate is a weed killer, which is used in brands like Roundup (from Monsanto). It was first registered in the USA in 1974.


Last year, the World Health Organisation classified it as “probably carcinogenic” to humans.


Studies have shown that glyphosate causes damage to cells and genes that can lead to cancer.


A study from San Diego School of Medicine published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in October 2017 tested urine samples from 100 randomly selected men and women between 1993 and 2016. It found levels of glyphosate in urine had increased by about 500 percent over those 23 years.


Yet, it’s still legal to use it on your garden or your lawn, and in most public spaces like parks in New Zealand. There are no figures for the precise volume used in New Zealand. As at 13 October 2015, there were 89 trade name products registered under the ACVM Act containing glyphosate.


As far as the use on fruit, NZ has a residue limit for glyphosate of 0.01 mg/kg. For all other uses the default MRL of 0.1mg/kg applies.


New Zealand's arable industries (crops like wheat, maize and potatoe) and horticulture industries (fruit and vegetable) were highly dependent on the use of glyphosate. Federated Farmers arable industry group chairman Guy Wigley said in a news article that if a ban were to occur in New Zealand, it would jeopardise the country's ability to be competitive, particularly in grain and seed production.


It appears that there is a strong resistance from our regulating government to make a change, as money seems to speak louder than health concerns.


Our supermarkets are full of food where Glyphosate has been applied. Glyphosate is found in foods like breakfast cereals - for example Cheerios, Cornflakes and Quaker Oats. It is also found in Snack foods like Goldfish Crackers, Oreos, Doritos and Ritz Crackers as well as in Canola Oil and grains and seeds, to name a few.


Chlorothalonil


This chemical is used to control fungal diseases in vegetables, crops and lawn. Chlorothalonil is acutely toxic, is a suspected carcinogen and linked to blood disorder.


The Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) has moved to stop the sale of 4 products containing this chemical to Kiwi consumers from end of 2016: Yates Bravo, Yates Greenguard, Yates Guardall and Tui Disease Eliminator for Fruit and Veges.


However, 3 other products containing chlorothalonil are still available for use by commercial operators: McGregor's Black Spot and Fungus Spray, Watkins Fungus and Mildew Spray and Taratek 5F.


The EPA said its risk assessment showed there were "unacceptable human health risks" from chlorothalonil's use in home gardens but considered it ok to be used by certified commercial operators. Does that make any sense to you? If the EPA knows that this chemical has "unacceptable human health risks" - how on earth is it ok to be used on our commercially grown food??


So here is a list of the maximum chlorothalonil residue levels still allowed on our food:


Food mg/kg

Beans 5

Berries and other small fruits (except grapes) 10